Job Oriented Careers
Understanding about different careers is critical to successful job search. Find below few Important career descriptions for different types of jobs.
Agriculture Information Technology
Information Technology has become a subject of great importance and concern to all mankind. This subject has and will continue to have a critical impact on global population, food, Agricultural production and general development. Agriculture software is developed to solve the field related problems easily and to facilitate the farmers, extension personnel and researchers.
Considerable opportunities are emerging in the area of rural development through effective use of information technology in agriculture. The agriculture sector accounts for 70% of the population of India. People living in the rural areas need information in various major areas, like agriculture, animal husbandry, education, health etc. Information Technology provides the necessary backbone to spread and disseminate information among people in villages.
This program will educate the students about the use of Information Technology in Agriculture as well as rural development. Students will be exposed to real world problems in the field of agriculture and how these problems can be solved using Information and Communication Technology.
You would covering following subjects like Agricultural Information System, Object Oriented Programming, Developmental Economics, Computer Networks and Village Area Network, PC and Applications in Rural Areas, Remote Sensing and GIS, Multimedia Technology, Farm Automation, Operating Systems, Database Management Systems etc.
This new course B.Tech agriculture information technology is offered from this year in Tamil Nadu Agriculture University Coimbatore. You should apply separately to Tamil Nadu Agriculture University. You would be called by Agriculture University counseling as per your rank and in which you can choose your preferred courses offered by the university.
Architecture, in particular is the study which deals with planning and designing of building and structures. Architects engage themselves in designing of a variety of structures including houses, apartments and colonies, offices and industrial complexes, hospitals, hotels, airport terminals, stadium, shopping and commercial complexes, schools etc. They provide professional services to individuals and organizations not only regarding new constructions but also in alterations and renovations.
Anybody who has studied Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry at the 10+2 level can apply for admission to study architecture at the graduate level in colleges offering the course. B.Arch is a 5 year course and most of the universities select students through a written test. Further on completion of the graduate course, if interested, one can study architecture at the post graduate course which varies from 18 months to 2 years.
Entrance tests for B.Arch Courses - The Council of Architecture conducts an aptitude test NATA on an All India basis for admission to colleges of Architecture. Engineering colleges select students on the basis of the result to the appropriate engineering courses. Some other renowned institutes like Anna University carry their own selection tests to identify suitable candidates while some give weight age to class 12 marks and entrance examinations to select students.
About NATA (National Aptitude Test in Architecture)
The National Aptitude Test in Architecture (NATA Test) measures aptitude of applicant for specific field of study, i.e. Architecture. The test measures aesthetic sensitivity, critical thinking, that have been acquired over a long period of time and that are related to specific field of study, i.e. Architecture.
The NATA Test is offered year-round at test centers located at colleges/ schools of architecture in India. For further information about NATA you can visit www.nata.in
Some of the Colleges/Institutions/Universities offering Graduate/Post-Graduate courses in Architecture are mentioned below.
- School of Planning & Architecture, 4, Block-B, IP Estate, New Delhi 110002.
- Punjab University, Chandigarh College of Architecture, Chandigarh 160012.
- School of Architecture CEPT, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380009.
- Lucknow University, Govt. College of Architecture, Tagore Road, Lucknow 226002.
- Goa University, College of Architecture, Campal Panaji, Goa - 1.
- University of Mumbai, Sir J J College of Architecture, 78/3, Dr. D.N. Road, Mumbai 400001.
- Indian Education Society's College of Architecture, 791, Bandra Reclamation, Bandra (W), Mumbai 400050.
- Pune University, Marathwada Mitra Mandal College of Architecture, 302, A, Deccan Gymkhana, Pune 411004.
- Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, School of Planning & Architecture, Mahavir Marg, Hyderabad 500028.
- Kerala University, College of Engineering, Thiruvananthpuram 695016.
- Anna University, School of Architecture & Planning, Sardar Patel Rd., Chennai 600025.
- IPS Academy, School of Architecture, Rajendra Nagar, Indore 452012.
- Bengal Engineering College, PO Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal.
- Sushant School of Art and Architecture, Sushant lok, District Gurgaon, Haryana.
- 15.Vastu Kala Academy, School of Architecture & Interior Designing, 9/1, Institutional Area, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067.
Air Force As Pilot
There are two routes for joining the Indian air force as a pilot / one after plus two via national defense academy (NDA) exam and the other after your graduation (preferably with maths and physics as subjects or engineering) via the combined defense services examination ( CDSE ). Upon clearing the test , you will be called to an Air force selection board for pilot aptitude battery test ( PABT ) followed by a series of group tests, psychological tests , and interview. You should remember that PABT can be taken only once. There is special provision for male NCC " C " certificate holders in Sr. division ( air wing ). Upon successful completion of training cadets are absorbed for as permanent commissioned officers in the flying branch of IAF. You should watch out for notifications for both exams that appear in leading news daily in the months of April / May and October / November every year. For further details you can visit www.careerairforce.nic.in.
Agricultural engineering is the discipline of engineering in agriculture, food and biological systems. Agricultural engineers develop engineering science and technology in the context of agricultural production and processing, and for the management of natural resources. They apply their engineering knowledge and skills to solve problems relating to sustainable agricultural production.
Career Opportunities for Agricultural Engineers
There is tremendous scope for qualified engineers having professional degrees in agricultural engineering. Agricultural engineers work in production, sales, management, research and development, or applied science in agriculture. A large number of agricultural engineers work in academic or for research and developmental activities in private and government agencies such as central and State Agricultural Universities (SAUs), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Council of Agricultural Research in various states at different capacities.
Colleges and universities that's offers programmes in agricultural engineering
- Kerala Agricultural University (KAU), Vellanikkara, Trichur, Kerala.
- Tamilnadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, Tamilnadu
- University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Bangalore, Karnataka
- University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Krish Nagar, Dharwad, Karnataka
Aerospace engineering covers the study of aeronautic and spacecraft engineering. Aerospace engineering is a specialized field applying the knowledge gained from study of aeronautics and astronautics.
Aerospace engineers design, analyze, model, simulate, and test aircraft, spacecraft, satellites, missiles, and rockets. Aerospace technology also extends too many other applications of objects moving within gases or liquids. Examples are golf balls, high-speed trains, hydrofoil ships, or tall buildings in the wind. Aerospace engineers are typically specialists in fields with fancy names such as aerodynamics, propulsion, navigation, flight testing, and more.
Aerospace engineers develop new technologies for use in aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas such as structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and communication, or production methods. They often use computer-aided design (CAD) software, robotics, and lasers and advanced electronic optics. They also may specialize in a particular type of aerospace product, such as commercial transports, military fighter jets, helicopters, spacecraft, or missiles and rockets. Aerospace engineers may be experts in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, celestial mechanics, propulsion, acoustics, or guidance and control systems.
Aero space engineers usually gain employment in the aerospace product and parts industry, though the skills of such engineers are now being valued in different fields. An example of this is in the manufacture of motor vehicles, aerospace engineers are responsible for designing vehicles which have a low resistance to air and greater efficiency with regard to fuel consumption.
Other than IITs Indian Institute of space science and technology offers courses like
- B.Tech space technology ( Avionics )
- B.Tech space technology ( Aerospace engineering )
- Amrita University Coimbatore also offers B.Tech aerospace engineering
Anthropology is a science which studies the origin and the physical, social, and cultural development and behaviour of mankind. It encompasses the study of the origin of human species as well as its cultural and social structures. Besides, Anthropology also studies the evolution of man at different ages as well as the physical and cultural diversity among humans, living at the same period of time, at various parts of the world in diverse environments
Anthropology is also involves the comparative study of human similarities and differences. It includes the biological and cultural history of the human species over the last four million years, the cultural patterns of people from around the world down to even those who happen to live next door to you, and the techniques and ideas people have used both to exploit and protect natural resources and the environment.
There are three main areas of employment for an Anthropologist, i.e., teaching, research and working in museums. Research jobs are available in organizations like Archaeological Survey of India, the Planning Commission as well as international organizations like the United Nation's UNESCO or UNICEF also require their services.
Moreover, openings are also available for socio-cultural anthropologists with Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) who seek their expertise in understanding of relations between industry and society.
Cultural anthropologists are particularly well suited to work in professions involving people, such as teaching, law, medicine, social work, and journalism. Archaeology majors may become cultural resource management specialists.
Museums are yet another potent source of employment. Many organizations like the ICMR, WHO and the Police Department also offer employment to anthropologists for the purpose of crime detection.
A section of the students may possibly opt for anthropologically oriented research to provide better service delivery or to assess social issues and social problems, such as in public health, education, urban planning, social welfare, and government planning, international development.
Unfortunately, Anthropology as a field of study still remains among one of the lesser known and less popular subjects. Mankind has yet to explore its full potential.
Automotive / Automobile Engineering
Automotive engineering is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems.
This course caters to train the students to design, develop, manufacture, and repair of automobiles. The demand for automobile engineering is growing with the expansion of automobile industries and increasing demand for vehicle. With increasing concern for pollution and fuel efficiency, these engineers also set standard of qualities, for example making the vehicle very efficient to suit all countries roads and environment.
The field of activity of a qualified engineer in automobile engineering contains development (construction, calculation and testing), priming of work, fabrication and observation of the functionality of vehicles for street and rails.
The engineers of automobile engineering have to develop car bodies and build-ups with aggregates like engines, clutches, gears and steering. They have to design according the postulations of aerodynamics and stylistics.
Automotive engineers are employed in automotive companies as well as in many other industries that service the automotive sector and require specialized mechanical, electrical and manufacturing engineering skills. Automotive engineers may find employment at major automobile, truck, bus and motorcycle companies as well as within racing teams, parts manufacturers and research and development organizations. Potential employers also include engine and gearbox manufacturers, chassis and body makers and supplier industries, as well as other transport companies.
Due to their interdisciplinary approach to applied knowledge, our graduating automotive engineers will have excellent career opportunities in the job market, both domestically and abroad.
In addition, since the program is structured on a mechanical engineering foundation, graduates will also readily find employment in companies seeking mechanical engineers.
Archaeology is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes.
Archaeology is the scientific study of the lives of early people based on the objects they left behind. It is the study of pre-history and history based on the examination of physical remains such as buildings, tombs, bones, tools, etc. Broadly speaking, archaeology is a multidisciplinary subject, which integrates knowledge of history and anthropology with geology, chemistry and even art.
It plays a vital role in reconstructing human history and helps us understand our cultural heritage.
Archaeology is either research or field-oriented study. Aspirants should have aptitude in art, history and culture.
The scientific and systematic study of the life and culture of past especially, seals, inscriptions, monuments, edifices and other such materials that have been buried somewhere in the past is known as Archaeology. The domain area of Archaeology is more diversified and has a number of branches. The various branches of Archaeology are archives, museology, numismatics, epigraphy, etc. The person who makes use of Archaeology as a discipline is known as archaeologist. The principal activities of an archaeologist include preliminary fieldwork, excavation of sites and periodical classification of them as well as dating and interpretation of materials so excavated. Archaeologists look for information about how, where and when cultures developed.
Career prospects for archaeologists are numerous as fields in which they can be employed are diversified. Archaeologists are employed in museums, cultural centers, universities, and different departments of Government and other such related bodies. Apart from these, they are employed in different projects, which are taken by research institutions from time to time.
The Archaeological Survey of India, under the Central Government, and the Department of Archaeology in the States are the major employers providing job opportunities such as assistant archaeologists or archaeologists. Selection to the Archaeological Survey of India is through the Union Public Service Commission and to the State Departments of Archaeology by the respective State Public Service Commissions.
The Archaeological Survey of India employs archaeologists at the State as well as the Central level either as assistant archaeologists who undertake activities like excavation, archaeological explorations etc., or as registration officers responsible for registering names of those who possess antiques. The vacancies for various posts keep occurring throughout the year. These are advertised in education supplements, Selection is done to these posts on the basis of written exam and interview.
After a PG diploma in Archaeology one can also seek employment through examinations conducted by Union Public Service Commission or Staff Selection Commission for the post of assistant archaeologist. One can also go on to become assistant superintendent, deputy superintendent Class I, join director and so on.
Apart from these, archaeologists can also get jobs in related industries and fields. Archaeology degree holders can also get jobs as tourist guides, heritage managers, interpreters, resource persons of trip organizers in the tourism industry. Archaeologists can take up teaching and research work after obtaining doctoral degrees.
Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Engineering
Biomedical engineering is the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field. It combines the design and problem solving expertise of engineering with the medical expertise of physicians to help improve patient health care and the quality of life of healthy individuals. As a relatively new discipline, much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development, covering an array of fields: bioinformatics, medical imaging, image processing, physiological signal processing, biomechanics, biomaterials and bioengineering, systems analysis, 3-D modeling, etc. Examples of concrete applications of biomedical engineering are the development and manufacture of biocompatible prostheses, medical devices, diagnostic devices and imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, and pharmaceutical drugs.
Clinical engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering for professionals responsible for the management of medical equipment in a hospital. The tasks of a clinical engineer are typically the acquisition and management of medical device inventory, supervising biomedical engineering technicians, ensuring that safety and regulatory issues are taken into consideration and serving as a technological consultant for any issues in a hospital where medical devices are concerned. Clinical engineers work closely with the IT department and medical physicists.
Biomedical engineering is offered in 14 self financing engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu.
Clinical engineering a mostly a post graduate programme is offered in Cardiff School of engineering / Cardiff university UK.
Nanyang Technological University also offers 2 years post graduate programme in clinical engineering.
Bio Informatics and Computational Biology
Bioinformatics and computational biology involve the use of techniques including applied mathematics, informatics, statistics, computer science, artificial intelligence, chemistry and biochemistry to solve biological problems usually on the molecular level. Research in computational biology often overlaps with systems biology. Major research efforts in the field include sequence alignment, gene finding, genome assembly, protein structure alignment, protein structure prediction, prediction of gene expression and protein-protein interactions, and the modeling of evolution.
The genome of an organism is assembled from thousands of fragments which must be correctly "stitched" together. This process, which requires the use of sophisticated computer-based methods, is carried out by a specialist in Bioinformatics.
Sequence (gene) analysis
Once the DNA sequence of a fragment of the genome has been determined, the work has just begun; one must next understand what the function of the gene is. This involves locating regions of the gene that code for a protein product that are involved in regulation and control and also finding those sections of the gene (introns) that are clipped out and discarded. The gene may be compared against databases of known genes with well-understood function, to find clues to its role in health or disease. All of these analyses are carried out using powerful computers and specialized software, and many would consider this activity the most important area of focus within Bioinformatics.
A relatively new area, proteomics studies not the entire genome, but rather the portion of the genome that is expressed in particular cells. This often involves cutting-edge technology, such as the use of micro arrays which allows the expression level of thousands of genes in a cell sample to be quickly determined. Once a large and diverse database of expression data has been collected, the next step is to identify connections between the patterns of expression of genes and a particular disease state. In this way, likely targets for drug and/or gene therapy can be located. Bioinformatics specialists work closely with bench scientists to accomplish the "data mining" that lies behind this next wave of the pharmaceutical industry.
The career prospects in the field have been steadily increasing with more and more use of information technology in the field of molecular biology. Job prospects are in all sectors of biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences, in research institutions, hospital and industry. Some of the specific career areas that fall within the scope of bioinformatics include Sequence assembly, Database design and maintenance, Sequence analysis, Proteomics (the study of protein, particularly their structures and functions), Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacology, Clinical pharmacologist, Informatics developer, Computational chemist, Bio-analytics and Analytics etc.
Computer Science and Information Technology
Computer science engineering is the study of practical and the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems Computer science has many sub-fields; some emphasize the computation of specific results (such as computer graphics ), while others relate to properties of computational problems (such as computational complexity theory). Still others focus on the challenges in implementing computations. For example, programming language theory studies approaches to describing computations, while computer programming applies specific programming languages to solve specific computational problems with solutions. A further subfield, human-computer interaction, focuses on the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable and universally accessible to people.
In computer science engineering you would covering fields like mathematical foundations , theory of computation , Algorithms and data structures, Programming languages and compilers, Concurrent, parallel, and distributed systems, System software, Computer architecture, Databases, Artificial intelligence, Computer graphics, software engineering, computer networks, microprocessor etc.
Information technology (IT), is defined as the study of design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware." In short, IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information.
In information technology you would be covering many fields similar to computer science but also telecommunication systems , micro controller applications , network design security management , information coding techniques, component based technology, visual programming , web technology, digital system design, mobile communication , embedded architecture etc.
Both computer science engineering and information technology has equal and excellent career opportunities. So my simple advice would be to choose the best college you get in computer science or information technology.
The institute of company secretaries of India is a premier national professional body (imparting education primarily through distance learning) established by to develop and regulate the profession of Company Secretaries in India.
The CS Course is by Correspondence with provision for Optional Oral Coaching classes.
- The cut off date for admission to Foundation Course is 31st March/30th September while for Intermediate course the cut off date is 28th February/31st August.
- For Foundation Course the minimum qualification is 10+2 or equivalent in any stream except Fine Arts.
- For Intermediate Course the minimum qualification is CS Foundation Pass or Graduation in any discipline, Arts/Science/Commerce except Fine Arts.
- The Final Examination is after passing the Intermediate Course.
- 16 months Management Training is to be undergone after passing the Inter/Final examination or Practical experience.
- The ICSI and its Regional Councils and Chapters offer Placement Services to Members and Students. A qualified Company Secretary has openings both in Employment and in Practice.
The Company Secretary is:
- An expert in corporate laws, securities laws & capital market and corporate governance.
- Chief advisor to the board of directors on best practices in corporate governance.
- Responsible for all regulatory compliances of company.
- Corporate planner and strategic manager.
For further details you can visit www.icsi.edu
Chemical engineering is the branch of chemistry and engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e.g. chemistry and physics), with mathematics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. As well as producing useful materials, chemical engineering is also concerned with pioneering valuable new materials and techniques; an important form of research and development. A person employed in this field is called a chemical engineer.
Chemical engineering largely involves the design and maintenance of chemical processes for large-scale manufacture. They translate processes developed in the lab into practical applications for the production of products such as plastics, medicines, detergents, and fuels; design plants to maximize productivity and minimize costs; and evaluate plant operations for performance and product quality.
Chemical engineers are employed by almost all companies in the chemical process industry. Their work also extends to processes in nuclear energy, materials science, food production, the development of new sources of energy, and even medicine. In addition to process and product development and design, chemical engineers work in areas such as production, research, environmental studies, market analysis, data processing, sales, and management.
Chemical engineers are also employed in areas such as research, design, process control, sales, economic analysis, and management. Petroleum refineries and the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and service industries also employ them. Approximately three-quarters of all chemical engineers are working in manufacturing industries; the balance is employed by government or academia or is self-employed
Corporate Secretary ship
In Corporate secretary ship course you will learn the strategic and functional contexts, in advising the Board, in leading teams in secretarial best practice, in ensuring compliance with law and regulation, and in establishing efficient internal communication of Board decisions and external reporting.
Ceramic Technology is an emerging branch of Engineering/Technology dealing with the study of the properties, manufacture, design and applications of ceramic materials. The ceramic designers are concerned with designing various types of ceramic wares used in industries, households, institutions, corporate houses and other places. The use of ceramic ware can be for both decorative as well as functional purposes. Ceramic products include table and kitchenware, decorative ware like flower vase, insulators, potters, building materials like tiles, etc. Cement is also considered as one of the ceramic materials.
A ceramic technologist is concerned with study, research and development of the ceramic materials, planning and developing processing systems designing and construction of plants and machinery along with other engineers, planning and implementation of processing methodologies, designs and development of various applications like glass, porcelain, cement, refractors, insulators, composite materials, enamels, cement etc.
The opportunities for ceramic engineers are vast both in private and public sector. In private sector, individual with a degree in Ceramic Technology can be absorbed in various ceramic ware manufacturing units located at various parts of the country. Generally, two types of workers are engaged in this industry,- Ceramic technologists and ceramic designers. The ceramic designers use sand and clay for basic ceramic materials while the technologists use the materials produced by complex chemical processes. One can also start his/her own business and become an entrepreneur.
One can also get jobs in Indian Space Research Organization, Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Institute for Plasma Research, among others, where there is great need for trained experts in ceramics.
Dairy Technology deals with all methods of handling milk from production, consumption and includes processing, packaging, storage, transport and physical distribution. Based on the sciences of biochemistry, bacteriology and nutrition, Dairy Technology employs the principles of engineering. Its objectives are to prevent spoilage, improve quality, increase shelf-life, and make milk palatable and safe for human consumption.
Dairy Technologists apply principles of bacteriology, chemistry, physics, engineering and economics to develop utilization of milk, cheese and other dairy products.
Dairy scientists study the physiology of reproduction and lactation; carry out breeding programmes to improve dairy breeds. They carry out experiments to determine effects of different kinds of feed and environmental conditions on quantity, quality and nutritive value of milk produced. They research breeding, feeding and management of dairy cattle.
Openings for dairy technologists are available in both the public and the private sector. They can find job in dairy farms, cooperatives, rural banks, milk product processing and manufacturing industries. Quality control departments also recruit dairy technologists. A large number of dairy technologists also start their own business such as small scale milk plant, creamery, ice-cream units etc or work as consultants. A consultant, however, needs several years of working experience in dairy farms to be successful. Besides there are opportunities for teaching as well as Research and development which is another growing area, crucial for the dairy industry.
Design and Manufacturing Engineering
The field of study in Design and Manufacturing Engineering helps to meet the growing need for advanced design and manufacturing education. In Design and Manufacturing Engineering you will be trained in areas related to Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing, Product Development, Advanced Manufacturing Processes and Systems, Engineering Measurement and Analysis, Packaging Technology, and Intelligent Design and Manufacturing.
You will be given excellent research opportunities in the above areas in both practical and theoretical concepts. In Design and Manufacturing Engineering students are well suited for careers in the academe, industry and the public sector, particularly in the areas of product design, development and manufacturing.
You will be covering following areas in depth
1.Design engineering: including engineering/product/industrial design, computer aided design/manufacturing/engineering (CAD/CAM/CAE), integrated design and manufacturing, web-based engineering, design optimization, artificial neural networks, knowledge based systems, genetic algorithms and evolutionary computing, engineering multimedia, rapid prototyping, mechanical transmission, gears and cam mechanisms.
2.Advanced manufacturing technology: including condition monitoring, condition based maintenance (CBM), mechatronics, embedded systems, internet-based monitoring, fixturing systems, control, image processing, robotics, automation, infrared thermography, sensor fusion, simulation, industrial engineering and operations management.
3.Engineering mechanics: including kinematics and dynamics of mechanisms, flexible mechanisms, modeling and simulation using the finite element method (FEM), and modelling of heat transfer and fluid flow.
He Design and Manufacturing engineering it emphasizes the fundamental principles involved in the proper selection of materials, definitions of optimal shapes, and establishment of appropriate manufacturing processes necessary to meet today's product demands.
Indian institute of information technology design and manufacturing is an institute for interdisciplinary academic and research program that integrates engineering design, manufacturing and management with information technology.
Energy Engineering and Environmental Engineering
Some of the most interesting and productive development s in engineering have taken place at the interfaces between conventional engineering disciplines, for example energy engineering. Energy engineering relates to study of application of a mix of engineering disciplines, such as mechanical and electrical engineering, to solving the problems of extracting, collecting and utilizing energy resources to satisfy human needs without destroying the environment.
An interesting new growth area for Energy and Environmental Engineering graduates and postgraduates is in the emerging and rapidly expanding renewable energy industries. Wind power is leading the race to expand but some of the others, for example solar electricity from photovoltaic, are not far behind. There are also tremendous career opportunities in wind, wave, and hydro and solar energy areas.
Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthful water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites.
In Tamilnadu B.Tech energy and environmental engineering is offered in Tamilnadu Agricultural University – Coimbatore.
Electrochemical Engineering is the study of the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy and the aspects that are involved in the relationship between electrical and chemical energy including the fundamental science of electrochemistry.
Electrochemical engineering involves the conception, design, construction, characterization, modeling, control and optimization of electrochemical processes, to convert electrical into chemical energy.
There is a tremendous potential for the use of electrochemical engineering in growth areas such as fuel cells, bio-sensors, electrochemical sensors and batteries.
Electrical engineering - sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering - is an engineering field that deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism.
Electrical and Electronics Engineering is one of the core branches of Engineering studies started as Electrical Engineering. Most of the branches like Electronics and Communication Engineering, Computer Science and Engineering, Applied Electronics, Electronics and Instrumentation, Information Technology have been emerged as specialization from Electrical Engineering. However, with the wide applications of Electronics in controlling and protecting the Electrical equipments and systems, the course has been renamed as Electrical and Electronics Engineering.
The major thrust in this course is related to the basic principles and detailed analysis of different types of equipments and systems for generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of Electrical Energy. The course also covers the study of electronic devices and circuits involved in measurement, instrumentation, control and protection of electrical equipments and conversion systems. Concept of computer and recent applications of computer based systems in design, analysis and efficient operation of power system, maintaining quality and security, also included in the course.
Electrical graduate are employed in Electricity Boards/Utility companies and large industries as engineers and managers, responsible for installation, maintenance, operation of power handling equipments and systems. Industries manufacturing large electrical machines and equipments employ engineers in design, production and testing. Educational Institutions and Research establishments recruit electrical engineers as faculty and scientists.
Fishery science encompasses the study of life, habits and breeding of various species of fish. Students of this course are also taught about development of fish breeding farms, to supervise fish research institutes.
Students also learn about the role of fish in aquatic ecosystems, fish biology, fish ecology, fisheries management and conservation. Emphasis is also given in areas like aquatic ecosystems and food webs, life history and ecology of important sport and commercial fishes, population and community dynamics, and theory and practice of fisheries management and conservation.
Some of the Research areas in Fisheries Sciences are fish breeding, rearing of ornamental fish, cultivation of edible seaweeds and preparation of food products, fish pathology and immunology, fish nutrition, biotechnology, bioactive and biodynamic substances from the sea, aquatic environment, fish genetics and judicious management of aquatic living resources.
Fire engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire. Fire protection engineers typically design safeguards that aid in fighting fires, such as alarm, sprinkler, and smoke control systems.
Fire engineering is a field which explores the various possibilities of preventing fires. It can be defined as the art and science of designing buildings and facilities for life safety and property protection in the event of an unwanted fire. This includes the application of scientific and engineering principles, based on an understanding of the phenomena and effects of fire and of reaction and behavior of people, property and the environment as well as the impact of fire protection systems including detection, alarm and sprinkler systems. Fire Engineering is becoming world's one of the noblest profession by virtue of its growing role in saving life and property.
A degree in fire engineering makes one eligible for the management cadre in Fire Service in the government or public sector. There is a vast scope of employment chances for fire engineers in large manufacturing organizations particularly those like petroleum refineries, petrochemicals and plastic, fertilizers, textiles, LPG and LNG handling and bottling plants, chemicals and other plants where there are risks of fire. Fire engineers are also employed by fire departments of local government bodies, insurance companies, architectural and building design, project management, aircraft industry, industrial processing, and any area of safety where the possibility of fire or combustion represents a hazard. Fire engineers may also work as surveyors in insurance companies.
Fashion technology is multidisciplinary branch of study with textile technology / design / manufacturing of textile products.
The major areas of study would be as follows
Fashion art design , fabric structure , garment construction , garment finishing , apparel merchandising and control , testing and quality control of textile products , garment machinery and equipment , work study in apparel production and creativity innovation and new product development with practical subjects like dying and printing lab, garment construction lab , textile and garment CAD labs , testing and quality control lab and fashion illustration lab etc .
After you finish you got good and diversified range of job opportunities are available in the apparel world like fashion designers, garment production executives, quality control officers, fabric coordinators, merchandisers, entrepreneurs etc.
The Gas Engineering programme is designed to provide a flexible but rigorous period of study for graduates intending to work in, the natural gas/oil industry.
The B.Tech gas engineering has got following modules
- Fundamentals of Natural Gas,
- Production Systems and Design
- Distribution, Transmission Systems and Design
- Gas Flow and Network Analysis
- Business and Project Management of Natural Gas Engineering
- Experimental and Measurement Methods
- Utilisation of Natural Gas
- Quality and Logistics.
This programme develops Gas Engineers who can handle exploration, processing and transportation of Natural Gas.
You will have job opportunities in
- Private & Public Sector Oil Companies
- Foreign Oil Companies
- Technical Service Providers
- Tertiary Sector (Insurance, Information Technology, Banking, Business Advisory & Consulting)
- Associated Industries - Petrochemical, Paints & Dyes
Geo informatics is a science which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geosciences and related branches of engineering. Geo informatics is the scientific conglomeration of application of technologies, such as Remote Sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Cartography, Photogrammetric and Global Positioning System (GPS).
The three main tasks of geo informatics are:
- development and management of databases of geo data
- analysis and modelling of geo data
- Development and integration of computer tools and software for the first two tasks.
Geo informatics is related to geo computation and to the development and use of geographic information systems.
Anna University Chennai offers B.Tech in geo informatics. Programme aims to train and empower professionals for analytical decision making and meet the high demand for skilled manpower in challenging fields such as utility enhancement, eco-monitoring, town planning, resource management and e-governance to name a few.
Genetic engineering is a highly complicated and advanced branch of science which involves a wide range of techniques used in changing the genetic material in the DNA code in a living organism. 'Genetic Engineering' means the deliberate modification of the characters of an organism by the manipulation of its genetic material. Genetic engineering comes under the broad heading of biotechnology.
Genetic engineering aims to re-arrange the sequence of DNA in gene using artificial methods. The work of a genetic engineer involves extracting the DNA out of one organism, changing it using chemicals or radiation and subsequently putting it back into the same or a different organism. For eg: genes and segments of DNA from one species is taken and put into another species. They also study how traits and characteristics are transmitted through the generations, and how genetic disorders are caused. Their research involves researching the causes and discovering potential cures if any.
Genetic engineering has specializations related to plants, animals and human beings. Genetic engineering in plants and animals may be to improve certain natural characteristics of value, to increase resistance to disease or damage and to develop new characteristics etc. It is used to change the color, size, texture etc of plants otherwise known as GM (Genetically Modified) foods. Genetic engineering in humans can be to correct severe hereditary defects by introducing normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones.
Genetic engineers are mainly absorbed in medical and pharmaceutical industries, the agricultural sector, and the research and development departments of the government and private sectors. They can also take up teaching as an option.
Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering that concerns the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, material and process. Industrial engineering draws upon the principles and methods of engineering analysis and synthesis, as well as mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems. In lean manufacturing systems, Industrial engineers work to eliminate wastes of time, money, materials, energy and other resources.
Industrials engineers use the principles and methods of engineering analysis to make processes more efficient and to make products easier to manufacture by retaining quality and thereby increase productivity. They also work to eliminate waste of time, money, materials, energy and other resources. Industrial engineers integrate people, technology and information to improve efficiency. Industrial engineers can also work as plant engineers, manufacturing engineers, quality engineers, process engineers and industrial managers in different fields of industries, management and service sectors in middle management cadre. Industrial engineering is a combination of mechanical engineering and management.
Instrumentation and Control Engineering
Instrumentation and Control Engineering is a well-diversified discipline.
Instrumentation and Control engineer is essentially responsible for designing, developing, installing, managing and/or maintaining equipment which is used to monitor and control engineering systems, machinery and processes.
The main objective of the work of Instrumentation and Control engineers is to ensure that these systems and processes operate effectively, efficiently and safely. They usually work for the companies who manufacture and supply the equipment, or for the companies who use it.
Instrumentation and Control engineer will develop skills in specific control disciplines such as advanced process control (APC), distributed control systems (DCS), programmable logic controllers (PLC), and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). The use of these disciplines will depend on the exact nature of individual job roles. Tasks and responsibilities which are common to many I & C engineer positions, however, may include:
- designing and developing new control systems;
- maintaining and modifying existing systems;
- managing operations;
- working collaboratively with design engineers, operation engineers, purchasers and other internal staff;
- liaising with clients, suppliers, contractors and relevant authorities (e.g. the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority);
- project management within cost and time constrained environments;
- troubleshooting and problem-solving;
- understanding and ensuring compliance with the health and safety regulations and quality standards of the country in which work is undertaken;
- providing advice and consultancy support;
- purchasing equipment;
- writing computer software;
- developing new business proposals;
- Accepting responsibility and a level of accountability commensurate with the seniority of the position.
So in short Control engineering is the engineering discipline that focuses on mathematical modeling of systems of a diverse nature, analyzing their dynamic behavior, and using control theory to create a controller that will cause the systems to behave in a desired manner.
Modern instrumentation & control engineering is also closely related to electrical and computer engineering (E&CE), as electronic circuits can often be easily described using control theory techniques.
Instrumentation and control engineers design build and manage systems that are used in a range of modern industrial settings such as; manufacturing, environmental, health, food production, mining and energy production. They are typically used to monitor, measure, regulate and control physical quantities like temperature, pressure, flow and to control product movement, actuators, positioning devices and the like. Instrumentation and control engineering is also the basis of mechatronic and robotic engineering.
The main objective of the work of Control and instrumentation engineer's is to ensure that these systems and processes operate effectively, efficiently and safely. They usually work for the companies who manufacture and supply the equipment, or for the companies who use it.
Control and instrumentation engineers (CI engineers) will develop skills in specific control disciplines such as advanced process control (APC), distributed control systems (DCS), programmable logic controllers (PLC), and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA).
Instrumentation & control is a field that requires a combined knowledge of mathematics, physics, electronics, chemistry and process control, in order to measure and control industrial processes.
Broad range of career opportunities exists for engineers from sales, management, technical projects, and research and development. For an example they can be employed in power plants, steel plants,, fertilizer plants, chemical Plants, refineries, cement manufacturing Plant can be employed in R & D laboratories and defense establishments also.
Information and Communication Technology
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are vital in the development of nations, particularly developing countries. It allows nations to achieve development goals by speeding up the production process, enhancing creation and sharing knowledge and connecting individuals, groups, enterprises and governments in speedy and cost effective manner. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is emerging as a big industry in India touching US$10 billion, besides providing and creating large – scale employment opportunities for the ICT professional. It is primarily concerned with the processing of information, which is found in many forms including information required for business transactions, booking seats for travel, management of materials and products during manufacturing process controlling and coordinating satellite systems, content development and public, material and process management.
B.Tech information communication technology course is available in SASTRA University Tanjore.
Materials science and engineering
Materials science and engineering is arguably the most important engineering discipline today.
Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. It includes elements of applied physics and chemistry, as well as chemical, mechanical, civil and electrical engineering.
Materials science and engineering is an interdisciplinary activity that applies the principles of basic sciences and engineering to understanding the behaviour of materials, their development and applications.
The discipline of materials science and engineering links scientific research with applied engineering to design materials for specialized uses. This field draws upon many areas in both the scientific and engineering realms. From science, the study of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science each play a part in explaining the origin of unique properties found in a substance. The engineering knowledge and experience of ceramists, metallurgists, electrical, mechanical, and chemical engineers are brought to bear in the application of these properties for a required use. It is this combination of scientific exploration and practical, hands-on engineering that makes this field so fascinating for its students.
Although research in the department of Materials Science and Engineering spans a wide array of topics, it can be roughly grouped into the following areas:
Bioactive Ceramics, Biomedical Engineering/Biomaterials, Ceramics and Glass Processing, Composites, Electronic Materials, Environmental Stability of Materials, Machining and Manufacturing, Materials Chemistry, Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, Metals and Alloys, Mining and Minerals, Optical Properties of Materials, Optoelectronics, Photonic Materials, Polymers, Recycling, Solidification, Processing, Surfaces and thin Films.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behaviour of metallic elements, their inter metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metallurgical Engineering is a broad field that deals with all sorts of metal-related areas. The three main branches of this major are physical metallurgy, extractive metallurgy, and mineral processing. Physical metallurgy deals with problem solving: You'll develop the sorts of metallic alloys needed for different types of manufacturing and construction. Extractive metallurgy involves extracting metal from ore. Mineral processing involves gathering mineral products from the earth's crust.
As a Metallurgical Engineering major, you'll learn the fundamentals of all three fields, as well as the basics of engineering in general. We need metals to make our society function—metals make up important parts of cars, bikes, planes, buildings, even toothpaste tubes. Your knowledge of the production, design, and manufacturing of these metals and mineral products can be rewarding and exciting.
Metallurgical engineering majors study the properties of metals, learn how to design metal parts, and solve problems concerning manufacturing. Students also learn how to test different metals to find out how well they stand up to stress, environmental changes, and other conditions.
Metallurgists are in charge of handling the minerals and developing new alloys. They also develop new methods for processing different kinds of metals.
Mechatronics Engineering is the combination of Mechanical, Electrical and Computer technologies. It is a relatively new field of engineering with many exciting developments such as internet control of machines, autonomous robots and engine management systems. There is, and will continue to be, a strong demand for engineers who are capable of designing, implementing and operating these systems to meet an increasing need in industry where complexity of projects is done with limited resources.
Mechatronics is centered on mechanics, electronics and computing which, combined, make possible the generation of simpler, more economical, reliable and versatile systems. The portmanteau "mechatronics" was first coined by Mr. Tetsuro Mori, a senior engineer of the Japanese company Yaskawa, in 1969 Mechatronics may alternatively be referred to as "electromechanical systems" or less often as "control and automation engineering".
A typical mechatronics engineering degree would involve classes in engineering mathematics, mechanics, machine component design, mechanical design, thermodynamics, circuits and systems, electronics and communications, control theory, digital signal processing, power engineering, robotics and usually a final year thesis.
The study of microscopic organisms is called microbiology. Micro-organisms are very small organisms which are not visible through naked eye. These organisms include algae, bacteria, moulds, protozoa, yeasts and viruses. Sometimes they are even referred to as microbes and are studied under microscope, being very small in appearance.
Microbiologists study and investigate micro-organisms and their relationships with man, animals and plants.
Some of the sub-categories of microbiologists are as follows.
- MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGISTS: Medical microbiologists study the role played by micro-organisms in inflicting diseases in humans and animals. They research and investigate these organisms to find ways to cure and prevent, occurrence of these diseases. Major breakthroughs have been made in this field and efforts are on all over the world to find solutions to many more dreadful diseases especially AIDS.
- AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGISTS: India is still an agricultural economy and microbiologists play an important role in improving its size and shape i.e. the output and quality. Agricultural microbiologists study plant diseases, the role of micro-organisms in soil fertility and spoilage of farm products. Advances and inventions made in agricultural microbiology over the years have contributed in increasing agricultural output.
- INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGISTS: Industrial microbiologists work with industries producing products such as alcoholic beverages, amino acids, citric acids, Vitamin C and antibiotics etc. with the help of micro-organisms.
- MARINE MICROBIOLOGISTS: Marine microbiology deals with the micro-organisms present in the ocean. It is a relatively new division of microbiology and promises to be an exciting one.
- GENERAL MICROBIOLOGISTS: General microbiology focuses on the fundamentals and basic features of micro-organisms including ecology, metabolism, genetics, physiology and structure.
Microbiologists can further specialize in the study of micro-organisms in the fields of their interest such as bacteriology; study of bacteria, mycology; study of fungi and virology; study of viruses.
Microbiologists find jobs in many places like research and development laboratories of government and private hospitals, research organizations, pharmaceutical, food, beverage and chemical industries. Being closely related to biotechnology, there are many similarities between them, making microbiology also a very promising career option.
Medical Electronics is an interdisciplinary field of study, which is based on skills and knowledge from various scientific, engineering and clinical disciplines for Healthcare applications. The Healthcare industry is a major and developing contributor to the world economy and there is a subsequent need for high quality engineering graduates. The aim of engineers specialising in medical electronics is to apply their knowledge and skills towards the development of medical diagnostic and monitoring systems that will help health-care professionals to deliver the best medical care to their patients.
The overall aim of the programme is to produce suitably qualified Medical Electronics Engineers with a solid understanding of bioelectronics (including instrumentation, biomaterials, medical device design). Such engineers will be well poised for careers across a wide sector of high tech industries in particular in the rapidly expanding medical electronics sector.
So in short Medical Electronics deals with the application of electronics in the field of medical science. The research and development work of medical electronics engineers lead to the manufacture of modern, sophisticated diagnostic medical equipment. Graduates in Medical Electronics could get jobs in companies manufacturing and marketing medical equipment.
Graduates in medical electronics find careers in clinical engineering departments within the NHS as well as within industrial companies' that specialise in the design and development of medical instrumentation. These graduates are also qualified for careers in other electronic industries and IT industries as well as in many other health care related areas.
Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment.
Mining engineering is the extraction of valuable ores from the ground for processing and utilization. It involves all phases of mining operations starting from exploration and discovery, through feasibility, development, production, processing and marketing to final land restoration and rehabilitation.
Mining engineers are responsible for locating natural reserves of minerals, petroleum, and other useful natural substances and then lay out plans, device shafts , inclines or quarries safe extraction of these resources , whether they coal or petroleum or metallic and non metallic minerals from under the earth.
Mining engineers are employed by mining companies initially at the mining centers where minerals are extracted. Some time even civil engineering construction companies employ mining engineers to supervise tunneling and open cut operations railways and roads etc.
Ophthalmic Optics is a science, which deals with the structure, function and working of the human eye. Popularly known as Optometry, this health care profession is concerned with examination, diagnosis and treatment of eyes, specially related to visual, optical symptoms, refractive errors and their correction, using lenses and other optical aids. The scope for optometric practice in India and abroad is great and unlimited. It is a dynamic and challenging career which could achieve personal growth, community respect and offers job flexibility, financial success and unlimited opportunities.
Optometrists or optometric physicians are primary eye care and health professionals concerned with vision care. They are experts in determining one's refractive error and prescribing appropriate correction. They deal with vision screening (eye testing), diagnosis of visual problems, orthotics and vision training, optometric counseling of patients with partial sight, color blindness and hereditary vision defects, and designing and fitting of spectacles, contact lens and low vision aids. They also prescribe Vision therapy eye exercises to patients complaining of Visual symptoms such as squint etc.
Though Optometry goes hand in hand with Ophthalmology in treatment of Visual disorders, Optometrists should not be confused with ophthalmologists or dispensing opticians. An optometrist performs all the tasks of an ophthalmologist, short of surgery. Ophthalmologists (Eye M.D's) are trained physicians specialized in eye and vision care who perform eye surgery, as well as diagnose and treat eye diseases and injuries.
Some of the institutes offering B.Sc optometry are as follows
- Manipal University – manipal.
- Vinayaka missions university – salem.
And also at Indira Gandhi National Open University in collaboration with Federation of ophthalmic Research and Education centre in India.
Occupational therapy is the therapeutic use of self-care, work, and play activities to increase independent Function, enhance development, and prevents disability; may include adaptation of task or environment to achieve maximum independence and to enhance quality of life.
Occupational therapy is the art and science of directing man's participation in selected tasks to restore, reinforce, and enhance performance; facility learning of those skills and functions essential for adaptation and productivity; diminish or correct pathology; and to promote and maintain health. Its fundamental concern is the capacity, throughout the life span, to perform with satisfaction to self and others those tasks and roles essential to productive living and to the mastery of self and the environment.
Occupational therapy is mainly used for treating patients with various kinds of physical disabilities. In the old age more particularly, some skills are required to perform normal acts. Occupational therapists design activities to develop self-independence in physically disable people. This type of therapy is patient specific, involving recreational, creative or educational activities. The patient's specific interests, his background, his previous experiences also form an integral part of treatment.
So in short occupational therapy trains in the rehabilitation of physically and mentally impaired persons.
Occupational therapists works in hospitals and other health care and community settings usually work a 40-hour week.
Polymers have been extensively used by the New Age Community. Polymers may be tailored to suit our requirements and have found extensive applications in all walks of life. Polymer Technology has carved a niche in the fields of electronics and electrical materials, textiles, aerospace industry, automobile industry, etc. Polymer Technology is entering to the aerospace's specifications of high strength combined with light weight.
The recent development of Polymer Technology has revolutionized the field of material science. Due to the advances of development of synthetic Polymers from Natural Polymers they are being used in various fields right from building materials to Packing materials, Fancy decoration articles, Electrical engineering, Communications, Automobile, Aircrafts, etc. Due to their high strength, light weight, good flexibility, special electrical properties, resistance to chemicals, amenability for quick and mass production and for fabrication into complex shapes in a wide variety of colors, polymers can be converted into strong solid articles, flexible rubber like masses. Soft and resilient foams smooth and fine fibers and clean and clear glass like sheets. They can be used to bond objects, Seal joints, bear loads and in anything from clothing to powering a space vehicle. A Polymer can be used for replacing a human organ itself.
Polymer Technologists have placement opportunities in multinational and national companies like Du Pont, Reliance Industries, MRF, Apollo Tires, Dunlop and a host of other companies with global market reach. The future of Polymer and Rubber industries is bright and job market is highly remunerative for qualified technologists. There is ample scope for higher education leading to Master's and Ph.D. levels in India and Abroad.
In Following areas you can do Research
- Viscoelastic damping / characterization ; Modeling rheological behavior
- Rapid Prototype and Rapid Tooling Technology
- Polymer Nan composites ; Biomedical applications of polymers
- Waste Management ; Polymer Synthesis
- Auxetic polymeric materials ; Rheology and processing
- Polyblends and IPNs ; Mold design
- Polymer degradation; Conducting Polymers
- The following institutes in Tamilnadu offers B.Tech programme in polymer technology
- B.S.Abdur Rahman Crescent Engineering College – Chennai
- Hindustan Engineering college – Chennai
- Kamaraj College Of Engineering and Technology – Virudhunagar
The pharmaceutical industry is fast becoming a major employer of chemical engineers and is increasingly looking for engineers with a specialization in pharmaceuticals.
Pharmaceutical engineers are concerned with the transformation of raw materials into valuable products by chemical, biochemical or physical processes. They are involved in the conception, design, construction, and operation of industrial plants in which the above processes take place, increasingly with design at the molecular scale being more and more significant.
Chemical and Pharmaceutical engineering overlaps with other branches of engineering, as well as with chemistry and biochemistry. This blend of subject material and emphasis on a broad range of physical and chemical processes make it a distinct and unique discipline.
Pharmaceutical Engineers are also trained in sophisticated process simulation software for the design of new reaction processes and for predicting the morphology of new drugs, which is of great significance to how effective a drug is, and how any side effects can be minimized.
Pharmaceutical engineers also engage in research and development, often in collaboration with Chemists and Pharmacologists working together in interdisciplinary teams.
In Tamilnadu some of the colleges offering programmes in Pharmaceutical engineering are A.C. College of technology Chennai Anna University campus and School of engineering Bhrathidasan University Trichy at present Anna University Trichy.
Petroleum technology covers a wide range and the specific tasks of petroleum technologists are dependent on the field in which they work. Petroleum technologists are involved in the search for new oil-wells. This involves geological work and those involved in this field are known as geological petroleum technologists. In the extraction process the petroleum technologists do research on the different types of mud used to lubricate drill bits.
Petroleum technologists are also involved in the evaluation of crude oil to determine its specific properties and classification which will, in turn, determine the refining parameters. Testing and evaluation of the various cuts are done by laboratory petroleum technologists during the refining process.
Petroleum technologists are employed by Chemical Industries, in the refineries of various oil companies and other manufacturing industries, as well as in marketing sections. Employment can also be found in the re-refining.
Psychology is a branch of science that deals with mental processes and behavior. It is the systematic study of human and animal behavior, mind and thought. To pursue the career of a psychologist, one should have a genuine desire to help other human beings.
Psychology is mainly concerned with the way the mind works. Psychologists study the processes, motives, reactions, feelings and nature of the human mind. Their treatment is based on changing the behavioral patterns of the patients without medication. They do counseling and help people by bringing about changes in their thought process, thus improving their quality of life.
Psychologists need not have a medical degree. But they have to study several years to specialize in various aspects of psychology. One can pursue Psychology at the plus two level, graduate, post graduate and doctorate level. There are specializations in many fields of psychology such as social psychology, child psychology, occupational psychology, clinical psychology, educational psychology, experimental psychology, etc.
Psychologists teach, practice and do research or work in one of the many branches of applied psychology. They apply their knowledge and techniques to a wide range of endeavors, including human services, management, education, law and sports.
Study of psychology includes a diverse range of activities such as the processes of thinking, learning and perceiving, remembering, forgetting, physiology of the nervous system, development of children, social relationships and their effect on personality development, mental disorders, applications of psychology to the study of society, industry, education etc., techniques of experimenting and testing, and statistics. There is a wide variety of topics in the professional study of psychology and some overlapping occurs between the different specialized branches. Good at science, maths, critical reading and writing will help you to have good career growth in psychology.
Printing is a process for production of texts and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing.
With the advent of science and technology, computers, lasers and microprocessor, Printing has become no longer a craft. It is a multi-disciplinary profession, dealing with integration of text and graphic to make a final print by transferring ink on paper or board or other materials.
As a Printing Technologist, you can find jobs in newspapers and magazines, railway presses, advertising agencies, machine manufacturers, and in packaging industries. You can also start your own printing press.
In Printing Technologist, you would be learning techniques like the preparation of image carrier, the actual printing procedures like letter press, lithography, gravure, flexography, screen, laser and inkjet and Post press techniques- finishing operations like cutting, folding, binding, laminating, and embossing, Packaging Technology- techniques of printing on packaged products, Materials Technology-knowledge of materials used like paper, ink, plates and chemicals.